Information provided from Environmental Protection Agency 


PFOS and PFOA are human-made compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment, they are part of a subset of PFASs known as perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs).  PFASs are highly fluorinated aliphatic molecules and have been released to the environment through industrial manufacturing, product use, and disposal of PFAS-containing products.  PFOS and PFOA are human-made compounds originally developed in the 1940s to repel oil and water and manufactured for use in numerous products.  Because of their unique ability to repel oil and water, the chemicals they contain have been used in surface protection products such as carpet and fabric treatment, coatings for paper, cardboard packaging, leather products, industrial surfactants, emulsifiers, wetting agents, additives, and coatings; processing aids in the manufacture of fluoropolymers such as non-stick coatings on cookware (Teflon); membranes for clothing that are both waterproof and breathable; electrical wire casing; fire and chemical resistant tubing; and plumbing thread seal tape.

 PFOS and PFOA represent the two PFASs that have been produced in the largest amounts within the United States and are the most widely studied of the PFAS chemicals.  During manufacturing processes, PFASs were released to the air, water, and soil in and around manufacturing facilities.  Their contamination has also been observed in secondary manufacturing facilities using PFAS products to manufacture other products.

Voluntarily phased out in 2002, PFOS and PHOA however have been extensively discovered across all trophic levels being found in soil, air, surface water, sediment downstream of production facilities, and in wastewater treatment plant effluent, sewage sludge, and landfill leachate.  Remaining persistent in the environment and resistant to typical environmental degradation processes the toxicity, mobility, and bioaccumulation potential of PFOS and PFOA have resulted in potential adverse effects on the environment and human health. 

Although the most common groundwater treatment is extraction and filtration through granular activated carbon.  PFOS and PFOA have moderate absorbability, the design specifics are very important in obtaining acceptable treatment.   Other potential adsorbents include ion exchange resins, organo-clays, clay minerals, and carbon nanotubes.  PFAS removal process may also incorporate both microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes.  Proven and reliable membrane technology may be effective for the removal of PFOS and PFOA for drinking water and wastewater treatment systems.  Removal and capture of PFOS and PFOA do not represent the end of the problem as further destruction of the contaminant is required.  

PFOS and PFOA Contaminate Removal by Wet Tech Environmental will take more advanced treatment through either the process of electronic frequency pulse  or levapor.